본 연구에서는 무역보험의 수출 증대 기여효과를 분석하였으며, 무역보험이 수출에 어떠한 경로를 통해 영향을 미치는지 살펴보았다. 한국무역보험공사가 제공하는 무역보험(단기수출보험, 수출신용보증) 데이터를 사용하였으며, 무역통계진흥원에서 제공하는 수출대상국 및 산업별로 구분된 한국의 수출 데이터를 활용하여 실증분석을 수행하였다. 실증분석 결과 무역보험이 수출 증대에 기여하고 있으며, 이 효과는 통계적으로 유의하였다. 또한 무역보험이 수출증대에 기여하는 것은 주로 수출기업의 금융제약을 완화하는 채널을 통해 이루어지고 있는 것으로 나타났다.
There is a series of empirical papers (Kim and Lee 2004; Egger and Url, 2006; Moser, Nestmann, and Wedow, 2008; Baltensperger and Herger, 2009; Auboin and Engemann, 2014; Van der Veer. 2015) which show that trade finance is positively associated with export. Despite its positive impact on export, trade finance has been a contentious issue in international organizations such as the WTO and OECD in terms of implementing related policy measures. This is based on the argument that trade finance hurts fair international trade because it ultimately plays a role just like a subsidy.
Regarding this contentious issue, in this paper we examine whether there is evidence supporting that trade finance is associated with an increase in export. We also investigate the channel through which the effect of the trade finance on export is working. To this end, we focus on a specific part of trade finance: short-term export insurance and export credit guarantee. This is because noble and ample data on these types of trade insurance are available. This confidential data is provided by the Korea Insurance Trade Corporation (henceforth K-SURE) exclusively.
We conduct a panel regression using Korean sector-level export data covering from 2010Q1 to 2017Q4. This dataset enables us to control for destination country-, sector-, and time-fixed effects. Our empirical results show that the short-term export insurance and export credit guarantee have a positive impact on exports, and the main channel behind this is related to mitigating financial constraints of exporting firms. The trade finance effectively eliminates the risk of importers' payment, which helps export firms reduce the financial frictions. This ultimately leads to an increase in export.
Since the main mechanism in which the trade insurance affects export is related to alleviating financial frictions, it becomes more definite that the way how trade insurance contributes to an increase in export is somewhat different from that of a subsidy. When we consider the fact that financial friction is an important factor for restraining international trade, which can partly explain the great collapse in international trade during the global financial crisis, the trade insurance policies would rather be a useful policy measure which can dampen negative impact on export during recession.
2. Short-term Export Insurance and Export Credit Guarantees
2-1. Overview of K-SURE’s Service
2-2. Data Description
3. Empirical Evidence
3-1. Empirical Model
3-2. Effect of Short-term Export Insurance on Export
3-3. Effect of Export Credit Guarantee on Export
3-4. Robustness Check