1960년대 시작된 벤쳐 사업은 1980년대 들어서야 성장가능한 사업으로 떠오르기 시작했다. 1996년 한국에는 약 1,500개 벤처기업이 70,000명 이상의 노동자들을 고용하고 있었다. 벤쳐 사업 촉진을 위해 공공 및 민간 기관에서 동시에 관여하였다.새정부에 의해 채택된 가장 야심적인 국가 정책의제는 21세기를 위한 지식국가 건설이다. 이 계획에 따르면, 새로운 투자의 상당 부분이 정보인프라스트럭처, 새로운 지식기반산업 발전, 과학 및 기술환경 개선과 교육개혁에 투입될 것이다.그러나 기술관련 투자 및 외국인 협력사업을 방해하는 많은 장벽과 문제들이 여전히 해결되어야 한다. 외국인투자법 제정과 같은 최근 정부의 노력 뿐 아니라 경제개혁과 투자환경개선을 위한 여타 공공 및 민간 기관들의 움직임은 외국인 사업 파트너의 더욱 적극적인 개입을 유도할 듯하다. 지식기반경제 구축을 위한 전략은 또한 FDI 유치에 유리한 환경을 마련해 줄 것이다.
Korea imported USD 2.4 billion in technology in 1997. The U.S. and Japan contributed 60.8% and 20.9% of the imports, respectively. The government of Korea has promoted international cooperation in R&D in various forms. At the governmental level, the International Joint Research Program, which started in 1985, has played the major role. So far, 906 joint projects have received a total of USD 41 million in support from this program. The government-sponsored research institutes are also involved in boosting cooperative international R&D efforts. Large firms have actively pursued strategic technological alliances with leading multinational corporations(MNCs).
As Korea has been losing competitiveness due to rising labor costs, restructuring the industry to improve the competitiveness of Korea's high technology and high value-added production has become an increasingly important part of the national agenda. In order to implement this agenda and to provide alternatives to those workers displaced by financial and corporate restructuring, the government has emphasized the promotion of small and medium-sized firms, especially new ventures. While beginning in the 1960s, venture business only began to emerge in the 1980s as a viable concern. There were about 1,500 venture enterprises with more than 70,000 employees in Korea as of 1996. Both public and private organizations are involved in the promotion of venture businesses.
The most ambitious national agenda adopted by the new government is the knowledge-based nation building for the 21st century. According to the plan, a substantial amount of new investment will go towards information infrastructure, development of new knowledge-based industries, improvement of the science and technology environment, and education reforms.
Many barriers and problems hindering technology-related investment and joint ventures with foreigners still need to be overcome. However, the recent efforts of the government, such as the enactment of the Foreign Investment Law, as well as actions by other public and private organizations to reform the economy and improve the investment climate, promise to induce more active involvement of foreign partners. The strategy to build a knowledge-based economy will also render a favorable environment to induce increased FDI.
Ⅱ. FDI, Technological Capability and Competitiveness
Ⅲ. FDI Trends and Policy Changes in Korea
Ⅳ. Technology Imports and Strategic Technological Alliances
Ⅴ. Knowledge-Based Economy and Prospects of Technology-Related FDI
Ⅵ. Concluding Remarks
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