본 논문은 한국의 법률, 보건의료, 교육, 시청각서비스 등을 대상으로 시장개방에 반대하는 이해관계자들을 제약하는 요인들을 정치경제학적 측면에서 분석하여 추가적인 시장개방에 대한 대안을 제시하고자 하였다. 분석결과 각 부문에 작용하는 제약요인들로는 획일적 평등성 및 통제를 지향하는 인식, 합리적 대안의 논의를 거부하는 문화적 요소, 보편적 서비스를 제공하는 데 필요한 정부재정의 부족, 정부정책의 이행·감독 측면에서 행정적 능력배양의 미흡, 서비스 질에 대한 평가체계의 미비, 정보의 비대칭성, 각 경제주체들의 기득권 집착 등인 것으로 파악되었다. 이러한 요인들을 해소하여 추가개방 관련 합리적 대안을 마련하기 위해서는 각 경제주체 간 ‘상호 불신’의 문제와 정보 공개 문제가 동시에 다루어져야 한다.
This paper seeks to analyze the major factors behind why each stakeholders in the legal, health, educational and audio-visual service sectors in Korea op-pose liberalization in a qualitative political economy context as well as to pro-vide alternative strategies for further liberalization in these four service sectors. In legal services, the foreign equity ceiling of 49 per cent for joint venture law firms may be lifted as long as the present regulation against the number of FLCs in a joint venture law firm exceeding the number of Korean lawyers is maintained. In health services, as a step-by-step approach, we can first con-sider a system where incorporated hospitals can be established and liquidated more freely by deregulating current limitations placed on the disposal of re-maining properties, while an overly distribution of dividends is restrained. In educational services, in order to deregulate limitations regarding the disposal of remaining properties, it will be necessary to enhance the transparency of management and operation of private schools. In this regard, allowing school foundations to take the form of a limited liability company could be considered, since they would then become subject to external financial audit. In audio-visual services, it will be necessary to improve monitoring and im-plementation of intellectual property rights as well as competition policy when considering further liberalization.
The major factors compelling each stakeholder in the legal, health, educational and audio-visual services to oppose further liberalization can be summarized as a general mindset towards uniform equity and control, cultural factors pre-venting discussion on rational alternatives, insufficient government budget for universal services, lack of administrative capacity in policy implementation and monitoring, absence of a proper system to evaluate the quality of ser-vices, asymmetry of information, and persistence of acquired rents.
In order to correctly identify and understand the nature of problems, the highest priority should be placed on reducing the mistrust among the con-stituents. This is because mistrust among the constituents acts as the most important impediment when attempting value-creating negotiation strategies among each of the stakeholders. Meanwhile, to build trust among all constit-uents, free flow of information works as an important factor.
Therefore, the problems of mistrust and lack of free flow of information are the most important impediments to improve those constraints that were analyzed in the selected service sectors. In addition, they are interlinked with each other, so that dealing with these problems simultaneously is a rational solution. In order to accomplish this, it is utmost important to develop the capability of each constituent to allow them to interpret specific pieces of information without distortion. In this regard, upgrading research and educa-tion of economics also becomes imperative.
2. A Sectoral Analysis
2-1. Legal Services
2.2. Health Services
2.3. Educational Services
2.4. Audio-Visual Services
3. Conclusion and Policy Implications