Climate change poses one of the greatest threats to humanity and nature, with Bangladesh recognized as one of the most vulnerable countries due to its geographic location. The lives of Bangladeshi residents are directly or indirectly affected by frequent heat waves, droughts, and floods caused by climate change. Various statistics and studies show that Bangladesh’s vulnerability to climate change is not only affected by long-term changes such as a rise in global temperature and precipitation patterns but also by mid- to short-term changes such as sea-level rise and an increase in natural disasters.
Bangladesh is considered one of the most vulnerable countries to flooding and rising sea levels, as it has the world’s largest delta area and more than 70% of its total land area is less than one meter above sea level. Extreme climate change and flooding are causing a decline in agricultural production in Bangladesh’s major agricultural areas, making it increasingly difficult to secure sufficient supplies of drinking water. Additionally, urban slumming due to excessive migration to inland cities by coastal residents who have lost their livelihoods is emerging as a new social problem.
The Bangladesh government has presented various policy directions to address this situation. It has included climate change response strategies in its long-term economic development policies, such as Delta 2100 and PP2041. Development policies such as 8FYP and ADP focus on flood response capabilities and water resource management. Bangladesh has also established various national plans and initiatives related to climate change mitigation and adaptation to actively respond to the impacts of climate change that threaten the population.
Furthermore, Bangladesh, as the chair of the Climate Vulnerable Countries Forum, is a leading voice in the international community for climate-vulnerable countries. In 2010, Bangladesh became the first least-developed country to establish a trust fund for the Climate Vulnerable Countries Forum, encouraging the international community to provide financial support for climate-vulnerable countries.
Bangladesh was the world’s second-largest recipient of climate change ODA aid in 2020, but there is still room to improve Korea’s support for the nation. Bangladesh is a core partner country for Korea in ODA activities and presents good prospects for expanding the size of cooperation in the future. With relatively limited resources available, Korea needs to plan and implement projects that meet the needs of the recipient country and Korea’s fields of expertise as efficiently as possible. It will also be necessary to derive cooperation measures in each field in the direction of supporting Bangladesh’s efforts to respond to climate change.