This study investigates the impacts of credit supply on economic growth and financial crisis. While credit supply helps boost economic growth through resource reallocation, excess credit supply can make the economy and financial market more vulnerable. In the event of a negative shock to the financial or real sector in a situation where credit is excessively supplied, asset prices sharply fall as the deleveraging proceeds. Moreover, economic activity can be sharply shrunk, thereby expanding the width and duration of the recession. The rapid credit crunch and stock price plunge that appeared in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the phenomenon in March 2020.
Chapter 2 presents qualitative analysis and event studies to describe the relationship between credit supply, economic growth, and financial crisis. In the qualitative analysis, we visualize the long-term relationship by comparing the household, corporate, and government credit with macroeconomic variables in each country. In the cross-country comparison, the correlation of household credit and consumption is negative, while that of corporate credit and investment is positive, suggesting that the impact on economic growth is different for each type of credit. Moreover, to examine the relationship between private credit and GDP growth, we find that GDP generally grows faster in the group where private credit expands rapidly. This relationship, however, blurs in the highest-income group. In the event study, we consider the relationship between credit expansion and the financial crisis. We observe that private credit increased significantly before the banking crisis, including the global financial crisis. This phenomenon is particularly noticeable in advanced economies.
Chapter 3 examines a dynamic relationship between private and government credit and various macro variables by estimating the panel VAR model. Household credit shocks tend to increase real GDP in the short-run, mainly by boosting consumption. However, in the long-run, real GDP tends to be decreased by appreciating the real exchange rate, increasing non-tradable goods production, and decreasing productivity and current accounts surplus. On the other hand, the corporate credit shock is opposite to the household credit shock. Its impacts on real GDP are relatively small, leading to the real exchange rate decreasing and the production of trade goods. The macro variable responses to the government credit shocks are clearly distinguished from private credit shocks, but overall significance remains statistically low.
In Chapter 4, we analyze the effect of credit supply on the possibility of a financial crisis using the panel probit model. We find that the household credit expansion significantly increases the probability of a banking crisis, while it does not affect the probability of a currency crisis. On the other hand, corporate credit expansion increases the probability of all types of crises. Government credit expansion tends to increase the probability of a government debt crisis. However, it is statistically insignificant for the period before the other type of crisis, suggesting that the rapid government credit expansion in response to a financial crisis rather than the level of government credit increases the likelihood of a government debt crisis. Moreover, government credit expansion has the effect of lowering the probability of a banking crisis and a currency crisis, supporting the counter-cyclicality of government credit.
In 2020, in the responses to the economic shock of the COVID-19 pandemic, the level of both private and government credits are sharply increased due to the massive fiscal stimulus programs and expansionary monetary policy. The impacts of household, business, and government credit on the macroeconomics can differ, so policymakers should pay attention to the level of total credit and the change in the composition of credit. In particular, it should be aware that the economic stimulus through short-term boosting of aggregate demand can lead to a deeper downturn by deteriorating in long-run productivity.