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  • 대외자산 수익률 결정요인 분석
    The Determinants of Return on External Assets

       As external asset positions increased significantly in both developed and emerging countries due to globalization and financial integration, countries are exposed to capital gains and losses caused by fluctuations in ..

    Hyosang Kim et al. Date 2021.02.26

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       As external asset positions increased significantly in both developed and emerging countries due to globalization and financial integration, countries are exposed to capital gains and losses caused by fluctuations in exchange rates and asset values. This study constructs the return rate of external asset position (rate of external) by considering the individual country as the economy’s representative agent. Assuming that the foreign asset position is the optimal investment portfolio, the rate of external defined in this study directly measures the country’s risk premium. The rate of external is also the excess return of the portfolio that takes a long for foreign assets and a short for foreign liabilities.
       We observe that advanced economies have a far greater rate of external than emerging countries in general. In comparison, emerging countries have a relatively higher rate of external during crisis periods. Thus, international risk sharing and consumption smoothing mechanism works through external investment. Advanced economies are in a speculator position, while emerging countries are in a hedging position.
       We also empirically analyze the determinants of the rate of external. The rate of external is higher as the foreign assets’ size, and the proportion of risky assets increased. There are negative relationships with the domestic currency value, GDP growth rate, inflation rate, and current accounts. The rate of external is higher as the financial market and institutions developed, and the financial market openness increased. However, these effects are offset in the event of financial instability proxied by the VXO index.
       Contrary to general expectations, foreign reserves are likely to relate to the return on foreign liabilities rather than foreign assets. The more the foreign reserves, the higher the return on foreign liability. Countries with larger amounts of foreign reserves are more likely to have favorable economic conditions such as trade surplus, higher growth rate, and higher productivity, bringing a higher return rate to foreign investors. These effects, however, disappear in times of financial instability.
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  • 독일통일 30년: 경제통합의 평가와 시사점
    30 Years of German Unification: Assessment of Economic Integration and its Implications for the Korean Unification

       In 1990, the socialist economic system of East Germany was incorporated into the “Social Market Economy (Soziale Marktwirtschaft)” of West Germany, completing political, economic and social unification. The economic..

    Hyung-Gon Jeong Date 2020.12.30

    Economic integration Europe

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       In 1990, the socialist economic system of East Germany was incorporated into the “Social Market Economy (Soziale Marktwirtschaft)” of West Germany, completing political, economic and social unification. The economic state of East Germany was in a more serious state than expected. With unification, East Germany’s GDP fell by more than 30%, and the unemployment rate rose sharply to over 15%, and in the late 1990s, the unemployment rate in East Germany drew near 20%. 
       During the time of unification in 1990, the economic gap between East and West was the biggest problem in the process of social and economic integration. Since the reunification, the German government has made various efforts to bridge the regional gap between East and West Germany. The income of East Germans has now reached 80% of West Germans, and the productivity of labor has steadily improved to 80% of the average of the West German workers. 30 years after reunification, Germany is now the largest economy in Europe and it has the world’s fourth highest nominal GDP.
       Despite these positive aspects, the income and productivity gaps between East and West are still widening, and the rate of economic convergence is falling significantly. Moreover, the bigger problem remains in that skilled or professional workers are moving to West Germany due to the fact that there are not enough attractive jobs in the East.
       The study aims to find whether the gap in economic power between the East and the West is decreasing and if the economies of East and West are converging in the process of economic integration. If the economies of the two regions have in fact converged, then it strives to discover the factors causing the convergence. It also intends to determine the remaining problems and challenges that exist to this day. In particular, by examining the factors that promoted the growth of the East German region and comparing them with the West German region, the study aims to provide policy implications for the unification of the Korean Peninsula. 
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  • Financial Inclusion Through Fintech in the Digital Economy
    Financial Inclusion Through Fintech in the Digital Economy

       Since the 2008 global financial crisis, including the recent COVID 19 pandemic, low interest rates and low economic growth have continued around the world. In spite of this low interest rate trend, as the economic dow..

    SEO Eunsook and YOO Kyeongwon Date 2020.12.30

    APEC , Economic cooperation

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     Executive Summary

     

     I. Introduction

     

     II. Progress of Financial Inclusion
     1. Achievements of Financial Inclusion
     2. Limitations of Financial Inclusion and Advent of Digital Inclusive Finance

     

     III. Fintech and Digital Financial Inclusion
     1. Definition of Fintech and Digital Economy
     2. The Impact of Fintech Development on Personal and Corporate Finance
     3. The Benefits and Costs of Fintech and Digital Financial Inclusion

     

     IV. Promotion of Digital Financial Inclusion in Asia
     1. Digital Financial Inclusion in Asian Countries
     2. Tentative Empirical Results on the Effects of Financial Inclusion
     3. Main Implications

     

     V. Conclusion

     

     References

     

     Appendix

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    Summary

       Since the 2008 global financial crisis, including the recent COVID 19 pandemic, low interest rates and low economic growth have continued around the world. In spite of this low interest rate trend, as the economic downturn prolongs, there is a situation of concern called the “new normal” of low interest rates and low economic growth, and low prices. In this new normal economic structure, the rapid progress of aging is increasing the necessity and desire for asset accumulation. In addition, digital finance such as Fin-tech with the evolution of the underlying technologies and the emergence of new technologies has replaced or improved many functions of existing finance in the advent of the 4th industrial revolution era.
       These changes are expected to bring benefits to the individual and corporate finance sectors, which have been subject to financial inclusion. On the other hand, digital finance, which is changing at such a rapid pace, may further isolate some individuals who were in the blind spot of finance, such as the elderly, and a support system for this is an issue that should be included in the policy of financial inclusion in each country.
       In this paper we find that Asian countries like other regions have achieved tangible results in financial inclusion while achieving financial deepening. When looking through various financial inclusion indicators such as holding accounts and loans, ATMs, and bank branches, the Asian region has achieved similar or superior performance to other regions. Compared to the income level, the growth of financial inclusion in Asia was found to be attributable to better performance in middle-income countries than in other similar regions. High-income countries in Asia are performing somewhat lower than similar peer groups in other regions, but this seems to be due to stagnation of growth. More seriously, financial inclusion in low-income countries in Asia is not appearing faster than in other income groups.
       In Asian countries there appears to be a wide variation in regional financial inclusion. However, Asian countries are expanding around the younger generation in the use of ICT technology that is helpful in spreading financial inclusion so if digital inclusive finance centered on Fintech is properly applied, Asian countries will become a new model for digital financial inclusion. However, since the gap in the use of Fintech in the region is large, how to fill this gap is being raised as an important policy task for each country as well as the whole region.
       We also tentatively examined the effects of financial inclusion and digital financial inclusion in the Asian region using the Asian country panel data collected from WDI and Global Findex data. Looking at the implications of the empirical analysis results even though it is very cautious to interpret the results of this analysis due to the lack of data of inclusive finance in Asia., first, the expansion of financial inclusion(such as ATM) in Asia seems to have some relationship with the reduction of poverty rates and income inequality which is measured with Gini coefficient. And the expansion of internet usage in Asia seems to have some relationship with the reduction of poverty rates and income inequality although we use it as the proxy variables instead of the digital financial inclusion variables. Lastly, the higher share of rural population which is used as a proxy for digital divide, which may occur due to the expansion of digital inclusive finance in Asia, has the potential to erode some of these achievements, but there is still a possibility that the expansion of inclusive finance will be effective.
       Despite the likelihood of success in digital inclusive finance in the future, digital divide spreads due to various gaps such as between urban and rural areas, between young and old, between low and high income, and between men and women, occurring in Asian countries and may worsen the performance of inclusive finance. Thus the governments in the region need to actively intervene to resolve these gaps. In addition, it is necessary to close the digital gaps that is occurring between countries through policy cooperation among APEC members.
       Considering the situation that the degree of development of Fintech in each member is expanding financial inclusion, it is necessary for Korean financial companies to set up an advancement strategy that focuses on the financially marginalized class based on the advanced system strategy of credit rating based on big data.
       Our analysis results will give some implications for the New Southern Policy. Personal and SME finance are very important business areas when financial companies currently enter the ASEAN region, and accurate analysis of each member' current status for Fintech or digital finance and financial inclusion should be given priority in terms of business expansion.

     

     Keywords: Fintech, Digital Finance, Financial Inclusion, Comparative Studies of Countries
     JEL Classification: O33, G19, G20, I31, O57

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  • 러시아 디지털 금융의 현황과 전망
    СОВРЕМЕННАЯ СИТУАЦИЯ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ ЦИФРОВИЗАЦИИ ФИНАНСОВ РОССИИ

       Среди всех секторов экономики России наиболее быстрые темпы процессов цифровизации наблюдаются в финансовом секторе..

    Валентей С.Д. et al. Date 2020.12.30

    Economic development

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    Введение 


    Глава 1. Государственная политика РФ в области развития цифровых финансов 
    1. Основные направления, цели, программа и приоритеты государственной политики цифровизации в финансовой сфере 
    2. Система государственных мер по развитию цифровых финансов и обеспечению их безопасности 
    3. Развитие электронного документооборота и облачных сервисов при взаимодействии государства и бизнеса 
    4. Перспективы развития государственного регулирования в области цифровых финансов в России 
    5. Обеспечение безопасности при развитии финансовых технологий
    6. Перспективы развития цифровой финансовой инфраструктуры 


    Глава 2. Цифровизация общественных финансов 
    1. Архитектура и функционирование Государственной интегрированной информационной системы управления общественными финансами «Электронный бюджет»
    2. Цифровые финансы государственных внебюджетных фондов 
    3. Перспективы развития цифровых общественных финансов 


    Глава 3. Роль Банка России в развитии цифровых финансов 
    1. Политика Банка России в области цифровых технологий 
    2. Современное состояние цифровых технологий в деятельности Банка России 
    3. Регулирование цифровой финансовой инфраструктуры 
    4. Перспективы внедрения новых инициатив Банка России в области цифровых технологий  
    5. Цифровые платформы Банка России (быстрые платежи, удаленной идентификации, маркетплейс, облачных сервисов) 


    Глава 4. Рынок цифровых технологий для финансово-банковского сектора 
    1. Виды цифровых технологий для финансово-банковских организаций, представленные на рынке России и их основные поставщики 
    2. Собственные разработки ИТ-подразделений крупнейших банков 
    3. Опыт цифровизации деятельности в крупных банках 
    4. Опыт цифровизации в мелких и средних банках 
    5. Перспективы развития банковского цифрового бизнеса и развития рынка цифровых технологий для финансово-банковского сектора


    Глава 5. Цифровизация национальной платежной системы 
    1. Архитектура, функционирование и управление рисками в Национальной платежной системе 
    2. Развитие системы платежных карт «МИР» 
    3. Развитие системы быстрых платежей 
    4. Перспективы развития Национальной платежной системы России 


    Глава 6. Цифровизация страховой деятельности 
    1. Механизмы электронного взаимодействия  участников страхового рынка 
    2. Современное состояние цифровых технологий в российских страховых компаниях 
    3. Перспективы развития цифрового страхового бизнеса 


    Глава 7. Цифровизация рынка ценных бумаг 
    1. Механизмы электронного взаимодействия на финансовом рынке  
    2. Современное состояние и перспективы развития цифровизации деятельности торговых площадок 
    3. Современное состояние и перспективы развития цифровизации деятельности профессиональных участников рынка ценны бумаг 


    Глава 8. Домохозяйства в цифровой финансовой среде 
    1. Формы и степень вовлеченности населения в цифровую финансовую среду 
    2. Перспективы развития цифровых финансовых услуг для населения 
    3. Состояние и перспективы развития цифровых небанковских платформ частного финансирования 


    Глава 9. Перспективы развития финансовой цифровизации в  России 
    1. Развитие цифровых платежных сервисов 
    2. Развитие программ цифрового финансирования 
    3. Развитие систем управления капиталом 
    4. Развитие цифровых платформ на основе технологии распределенных реестров


    Глава 10. Направления международного сотрудничества России в области цифровизации финансов 
    1. Примеры международных проектов с участием России в области финансовой цифровизации 
    2. Перспективы развития международных проектов России и Республики Корея по цифровизации финансов 


    Заключение 


    Использованная 


    Список сокращений 

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    Summary

       Среди всех секторов экономики России наиболее быстрые темпы процессов цифровизации наблюдаются в финансовом секторе, представители которого ведут активную работу по внедрению цифровых технологий во все бизнес- процессы.
       Цель проведенного исследования - определение ключевых трендов цифровой трансформации финансовой системы России. В монографии представлена характеристика текущего состояния цифровизации финансов в России, а также обозначены перспективные траектории для дальнейшего углубления международной кооперации в данной области.
       В ходе исследования был сделан вывод о значимой роли государства и Банка России в сфере разработки и имплементации финансовых технологий. Государство активно переводит в цифровой формат собственные услуги, способствуя интеграции в этот сегмент цифровых финансовых решений, а Банк России выступает инициатором и координатором внедрения цифровых технологий на финансовых рынках, активно развивая цифровые платформы для усиления конкуренции и повышения доступности финансовых услуг. Все эти инновации потребовали приведения существующей нормативно- правовой базы в соответствие с вызовами цифровой экономики. Ход этих процессов всесторонне исследован в работе.
       Анализ процессов цифровизации банковской сферы показал, что крупные российские банки инвестируют значительные средства в цифровые технологии для того, чтобы удовлетворять растущие потребности клиентов и выдерживать высокий уровень конкуренции. Отмечено, что один из лидеров цифровизации в России - ПАО «Сбербанк» уже реализует ряд инициатив совместно с технологическими компаниями Республики Корея и нацелен на расширение взаимодействия с корейской стороной в целях разработки и совершенствования финансовых технологий. Данная успешная модель сотрудничества может быть взята на вооружение другими российскими кредитными организациями.
       В России успешно функционируют инновационные fintech- и insurtech- стартапы, некоторые из них могут быть интересны представителям Республики Корея. Кроме этого, целесообразным представляется также создание совместных площадок и акселерационных программ, объединяющих корейские и российские стартапы в сфере цифровых технологий и способствующих их взаимопроникновению на рынки обеих стран.
       Взаимодействие на уровне национальных финансовых регуляторов России и Республики Корея имеет первостепенное значение для проработки и обсуждения вопросов регулирования в сфере финтеха, а также противодействия угрозам в области информационной безопасности. Совместная работа Банка России и Комиссии по финансовым услугам (FSC) может быть организована в рамках «регуляторных песочниц» путем создания рабочих и консультационных групп.
       Авторы уверены, что объединение потенциала российской науки в области научных исследований и практического опыта южнокорейского бизнеса может также послужить дополнительным импульсом для ускорения процессов цифровизации в страховом секторе, прежде всего, за счет развития телемедицины и совместных стартапов.
       Среди других приоритетных направлений сотрудничества России и Кореи в монографии выделено также установление партнерства в сфере розничной торговли и онлайн-платежей. По мнению авторов, создание трансграничных торговых платформ, а также их интеграция с платежными сервисами позволит существенно увеличить товарооборот стран.
       Авторы изучили тенденции, характеризующиеся распространением финансовых технологий среди населения. Анализ ключевых индикаторов свидетельствует, что Россия по-прежнему уступает странам–лидерам в области цифровизации по степени вовлеченности домохозяйств в цифровую финансовую среду. В связи с этим для России важным направлением сотрудничества с Кореей является работа по совершенствованию инфраструктуры связи и распространению высокоскоростного интернета 5G по всей территории страны.
       Перспективно формирование единого международного финансового рынка, поддерживающего устойчивый информационный обмен, сопряжение регулирующих практик и финансовую безопасность. Выход иностранных эмитентов на российские биржевые площадки привел к настоящему буму среди частных инвесторов, проявивших значительный интерес к зарубежным ценным бумагам. Быстро развиваются и проекты допуска российских инвесторов к торговле криптовалютами на иностранных площадках.
       По итогам исследования авторы пришли к выводу, что потенциал расширения кооперации между Республикой Кореей и Российской Федерацией в сфере цифровизации финансовой системы весьма широк. Сближение накопленного опыта науки и практики России и Республики Корея является взаимовыгодным и, несомненно, будет способствовать ускорению и повышению эффективности цифровой трансформации в обеих странах.

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  • Measuring Convergences and Divergences in APEC RTAs/FTAs: a text-mining approach
    Measuring Convergences and Divergences in APEC RTAs/FTAs: a text-mining approach

    In this paper, I suggest that text mining analysis of regional trade agreements (RTAs) can be a suitable methodology to develop a tangible measure of convergence between RTAs. By utilizing well-established text similarity concepts..

    Jeongmeen Suh Date 2020.12.30

    APEC , Economic integration

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    Executive Summary  


    Ⅰ. Introduction

    Ⅱ. Data and Methodology
    2.1. Data to Use
    2.2. Landscape of APEC RTA from the database
    2.3. Methodology: Text similarity as a measurement of RTA convergence

    Ⅲ. Analytical Findings
    3.1. Overall trend of convergence
    3.2. Who leads the convergence: Clustering aspects
    3.3. Who leads the convergence: Development aspects

    Ⅳ. Further Analysis: convergence by chapters

    Ⅴ. Robustness Checks

    Ⅵ. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Appendix
    A. Lists of Key Variable Name
    B. Convergence of APEC RTAs by Chapters 



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    Summary

    In this paper, I suggest that text mining analysis of regional trade agreements (RTAs) can be a suitable methodology to develop a tangible measure of convergence between RTAs. By utilizing well-established text similarity concepts in related literatures, I attempt to investigate how much RTAs in APEC are converging in terms of how much similar RTA texts are. Furthermore, which areas of RTA converge more or less will be examined. The main results of the study are as follows. The RTAs signed by APEC members are gradually converging over time, and they converged (in terms of 5-gram Jaccard similarity) at an annual average of 8% for all RTAs (both inter- and intra-regional) while 9.7% for intra-regional RTAs only. The areas that converged the most are service and transparency chapters, which show 2.2 times and 1.6 times higher level of convergence than the average, respectively. The objective and intuitive indicators of regional norm convergence are expected to provide a common understanding for setting goals and strategies for regional economic integration in the future.

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  • 현안대응자료 요약 모음집(2020 하반기)

    Date 2020.12.31

    Economic outlook , Economic cooperation

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  • The Value-added Creation Effect of Global Value Chain Participation: Industry-le..
    The Value-added Creation Effect of Global Value Chain Participation: Industry-level Evidence from APEC Member Economies

    We analyze the value-added creation effect of GVC participation by applying a standard fixed effects regression model analysis with economy-wide country-industry data. We use OECD Inter-country Input-Output Tables covering 64 coun..

    Innwon Park and Soonchan Park Date 2020.12.04

    APEC , Economic reform

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    Executive Summary

    Ⅰ. Introduction

    Ⅱ. Measuring Industry Participation and Position in GVCs
    2.1. Industry Participation in Vertical Specialization Linkage: Backward and Forward Participation Rates
    2.2. Industry Position in Production Line: Upstreamness and Downstreamness Indices

    Ⅲ. Industry Participation and Position in GVCs: Statistical Observations from APEC Member Economies
    3.1. Forward and Backward Participation Rates
    3.2. Upstreamness Index

    Ⅳ. The Value-added Creation Effect of GVC Participation: An Empirical Investigation for APEC Member Economies
    4.1. Model Specification
    4.2. Data and Summary Statistics
    4.3. Empirical Results
    4.4. Policy Implications

    Ⅴ. Summary and Concluding Remarks

    References

    Appendix


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    Summary

    We analyze the value-added creation effect of GVC participation by applying a standard fixed effects regression model analysis with economy-wide country-industry data. We use OECD Inter-country Input-Output Tables covering 64 countries (21 APEC members and 43 non-APEC members) and 35 industries (1 Agriculture, forestry and fishing, 3 Mining, 16 Manufacturing, and 15 Service) between 2005 and 2015. We find that APEC member economies’ participation in GVC activities is not distinct from non-APEC member economies but the causal relationship between GVC participation and created domestic value-added is much stronger in APEC member economies. More specifically, from the qualitative evaluation on statistical data, we find that backward linkage has been stronger than forward linkage and both have been recently decreasing. The APEC industries’ upstream positions in production line have been slightly more distinguished than non-APEC industries. From the econometric regression analysis, we find that forward participation in GVCs is more desirable than backward participation in terms of creating domestic value-added. We also find that the industry position in middle stages of production line in contrast to earlier and later stages creates higher domestic value-added per output unit. This implies that the firm-specific conventional U-shaped “Smile Curve Hypothesis” is not applicable at the economy-wide country-industry level, especially in APEC member economies. This finding supports that manufacturing industries are still a major driving force for less developed APEC member economies to move up the development ladder. Considering that gains from GVC participation are diversified across industries and upgrading country-industry positions in GVCs is competitive among the interconnected countries, we strongly recommend for APEC member economies to construct effective domestic value chains and coordinate with other members during their process of upgrading GVC participation.

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  • EU GDPR 위반사례의 분석과 시사점
    A Study on CJEU Cases on GDPR and Their Implications for Korea

      This report reviews the preliminary judgments of the CJEU on the interpretation of the EU GDPR and compares them with Korean laws and precedents in order to derive implications related to the validity of passive consent, th..

    Kyu Yub Lee and Jun Hyun Eom Date 2020.11.20

    Privacy , EU GDPR

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    Summary
      This report reviews the preliminary judgments of the CJEU on the interpretation of the EU GDPR and compares them with Korean laws and precedents in order to derive implications related to the validity of passive consent, the basis for the transfer of personal data abroad, and the content and scope of application of the right to be forgotten. The CJEU have ruled that passive consent, such as preselected check boxes, is not a valid agreement. In addition, the ombudsperson mechanism which cannot make any decisions binding on intelligence agencies is not effective judicial redress. That is why the Privacy Shield, which was the basis for the transfer of personal data between the EU and the United States, is invalid. Finally, the deletion from search engines based on the right to be forgotten is restricted to the EU region, not the entire world.
      By comparing those precedents of the CJEU with Korean laws and precedents, the report provides the following implications. First, the passive consent was interpreted as invalid even if it was in accordance with Korean laws. Besides, the precedent is also in the same position, which shows important criterion was whether the data subject could objectively confirm the intention of the data subject. However, since Korean laws are less specific than the EU GDPR, it seemed necessary to supplement them. Second, the transfer of personal data to third countries or international organizations was allowed only when the data subject agreed. Otherwise, the EU GDPR recognized various other reasons besides the consent of the data subject. It is time that the supervisory authorities of Korean law should consider whether to allow other basis for the transfer of personal data or not. Last, there was a ruling that the right to be forgotten has not yet been introduced into Korean law. The right to correct and delete in Korean law is recognized only if the information is incorrect after the exercise of the right to read, and there is a difference from the right to be forgotten. Discussions on whether to introduce the right to be forgotten are needed.
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  • 디지털세 논의에 관한 경제학적 고찰
    A Survey of Digital Tax

       As the digital economy progresses, there is growing concern regarding the issue of tax avoidance by multinationals. Since firms rely heavily on intangibles and yield profits without permanent establishments in the dig..

    Kyu Yub Lee and Hyunsoo Kim Date 2020.11.06

    Multilateral negotiations , Tax system

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    국문요약 


    제1장 서론 
    1. 연구의 목적과 필요성
    2. 연구의 구성과 내용


    제2장 디지털세에 관한 국제 논의 동향 
    1. 논의 배경 
    2. OECD/G20의 BEPS 논의 
    3. European Commission 제안


    제3장 다국적기업의 조세회피에 관한 경제학의 선행연구 
    1. 세원잠식과 소득이전(BEPS) 
    2. 다국적기업 조세회피의 경제적 영향


    제4장 디지털세에 관한 최근 연구 
    1. 디지털 플랫폼 시장: 양면시장 
    2. 양면시장의 최적조세효과: 종가세 vs. 종량세
    3. 사용자 데이터를 활용하는 디지털 플랫폼과 조세효과
    4. 과세권 배분 기준에 따른 조세효과 
    5. 디지털 서비스세의 경제적 효과 


    제5장 결론 


    참고문헌 


    Executive Summary 

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    Summary

       As the digital economy progresses, there is growing concern regarding the issue of tax avoidance by multinationals. Since firms rely heavily on intangibles and yield profits without permanent establishments in the digital economy, the so-called Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) phenomenon is likely to grow worse as such tax avoidance by multinationals becomes more prevalent and elaborate. Working within the OCED/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS, over 135 countries are collaborating to reach an agreement by the end of 2020, and many economies including European countries have been introducing digital services tax.
       This paper surveys the literature on the economic impact of tax avoidance by multinationals, reviews international discussions on the BEPS project and digital services tax, and provides, by suggesting directions for future research, references for government to prepare countermeasures for the introduction of the BEPS project and digital services tax by other countries. Chapter 2 covers recent discussions on the OECD/G20 BEPS project, the European Commission’s corporate tax reform, and introduction of digital services tax by many countries. The key points of the “Two-pillar approach” discussed at the OCED/G20 are profit allocation using a predetermined formula and ensuring a minimum level of effective taxation. Since the cessation of discussions on corporate tax reform at the European Commission, many European countries have been independently introducing digital services tax targeting digital enterprises with high profits. Chapter 3 surveys the literature on the magnitude and economic impact of BEPS. Previous papers find that an increase in corporate tax rates differentials between home and a tax haven would raise subsidiaries’ profits, but the magnitudes become lower as the quality of data and methodology improve. They also report the evidence of manipulation of transfer price and relocation of intellectual property to a tax haven based on tax rates differentials between home and a tax haven. According to papers that analyzed the impact of tax avoidance on price, output, and consumer welfare, welfare increases with tax avoidance in countries with a high tax rate, while it tends to decrease in countries with a low tax rate. An increase in corporate tax rate, however, generally has a negative effect on firms’ productivity, investment, and innovation. Chapter 4 reviews recent studies on digital tax and online platforms in two-sided markets. In two-sided markets, platforms react to taxation by taking account the indirect network effect, which refers to interaction between incentives of users on each side to participate in the platform. A platform would respond to tax by reducing price on one side if the market has large indirect network effect. Recent studies show that the impact on platform’s pricing and fiscal revenue of taxing a two-sided platform varies depending on the magnitude of indirect network effect. Based on this extensive literature review, this paper concludes with suggestions for future research direction. It will be worthwhile to explore avenues like tax incidence, investment effects of digital tax, impact analysis at industry level, trade conflicts arising from introducing digital services, and changes in international standards for the digital economy.
     

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  • 중국의 사이버보안 정책 연구
    A Study on China's Cybersecurity Policy

       This study examined the Chinese government's cyber security policies and compared and analyzed cyber security policies between Korea and China to draw implications for Korea, recognizing the increasing importance of c..

    Minsuk Park and Hyo Jin Lee Date 2020.07.14

    Economic cooperation , Chinese legal system

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    국문요약


    제1장 서론
    1. 연구의 배경과 목적
    2. 선행연구


    제2장 중국의 사이버보안 전략
    1. 중국의 대내외 사이버보안 전략
    2. 사이버보안 국제 협력 동향


    제3장 중국의 사이버보안 정책
    1. 네트워크 보안
    2. 정보 보안
    3. 암호법


    제4장 한국의 사이버보안 현황 및 한중 비교
    1. 한국의 사이버보안 연혁 및 전략
    2. 한국의 사이버보안 정책
    3. 한중간 사이버보안 정책 비교


    제5장 결론
    1. 평가
    2. 한국에 대한 시사점


    참고문헌


    Executive Summary

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    Summary

       This study examined the Chinese government's cyber security policies and compared and analyzed cyber security policies between Korea and China to draw implications for Korea, recognizing the increasing importance of cyber security worldwide and how the technology hegemony conflict between China and the U.S. continues to intensify.
       Firstly, we analyzed the Chinese government's cyber security policies at the national strategic level in Chapter 2. China has implemented information control over cyberspace at the national level to maintain social order. Especially, Xi’s administration has positioned cyberspace sovereignty as a part of national sovereignty, in line with which cyber security strategy is established. In the field of cyber security, international cooperation is required, but there are difficulties arising from the disparity between the regulatory scope and priority areas of cyber security by country. Therefore this study examined international cooperation with major countries in the area of cyber security currently pursued by the Chinese government to identify major issues in the nation’s cyber security strategy. China and the U.S. operate upon different concepts in their scope of cyber security. China is a centrally controlled country that sets the priority of cybersecurity as a matter of “national security,” whereas the U.S. regulates cyber security, focusing on "protecting privacy" based on individual rights and the freedom of expression. On the other hand, Russia operates upon a similar perception of cybersecurity to China in terms of strengthening its national sovereignty in cyberspace, controlling the country's information flow, and applying changes to the international cyber governance system. In the case of the EU, its position varies by individual case.
       Chapter 3 analyzed the main contents and features of the recently implemented Cyber Security Act to examine the Chinese government's cybersecurity policy from a legal system perspective. The Chinese government has been announcing follow-up measures to implement the Cyber Security Act since 2019 and strengthen its enforcement power. The Act mandates certification of network security management systems, security grade protection systems, and network security related products and services. In addition, a "safety review" has become mandatory and regulations related to the transfer of personal information and important data to foreign countries have been included in recently announced laws. In order to start information management in earnest, the Cryptographic Act was enacted in 2020, therefore further expanding the scope of regulations on cyber security.
       In Chapter 4, we look into the main contents of Korea's cyber security policy and compared and analyzed the cyber security policies between Korea and China. Currently, Korea lacks a cyber security law that covers both the public and private sectors, such as in effect within China. However, based on the national cyber security strategy announced in April 2019, the government announced the “National Cyber Security Basic Plan 2019-2022” in September 2019 and is gradually implementing 100 detailed tasks in areas such as strengthening cyber security, establishing legal systems, and international cooperation.
       Based on this analysis of the cyber security policies of China and Korea, we derive the following conclusions for Korea.
       It is important for Korean companies to continuously monitor and prepare related systems in order to adapt to changes in the business environment situation where China is strengthening cybersecurity measures to manage internal and external risks. The government should also seek areas that can be supported at the national level. First of all, China's implementation of the Cyber Security Act has made it mandatory for Korean companies to obtain security grades. In Korea, the network security level is a recommended standard, but in China this is compulsory. Hence, Korean companies must independently come up with their own countermeasures in related fields, and government support is also needed to minimize confusion during this process. Next, certification in the network equipment sector has become more complex, and new regulations on personal information and data security are being prepared to take effect. Consequently, related policies and regulations are expected to be announced in the near future. In response, the Korean government should hold regular briefing sessions on related policies for Korean companies operating in China. It is also necessary to consider the ongoing cooperation at the national level and make efforts to further strengthen communication channels.


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