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발간물

연구보고서

WTO 체제 개혁과 한국의 다자통상정책 방향 표지
연구보고서 상세
제목 WTO 체제 개혁과 한국의 다자통상정책 방향
저자 서진교, 김종덕, 박지현, 김민성, 안덕근
분류 18-20
주제 다자간협상,무역정책
발간일 2018-12-31

   GATT 체제를 대신해 1995년 출범한 WTO 체제는 어려운 가운데 DDA라는 다자무역협상을 출범시켰다. 그러나 DDA가 17년이 넘도록 가시적 성과를 도출하지 못하면서 WTO 다자무역체제에 대한 신뢰가 손상되고 있다. 그러나 그동안 WTO의 성과가 전혀 없었던 것은 아니다. 복수국간협상이긴 하지만 WTO 출범 이후 정보기술협정(ITA) 및 정부조달협정(GPA)의 타결을 통해 상품시장 개방이 확대되었고, 서비스 및 지재권 분야의 무역규범도 안정적으로 정착되었다. 이를 통해 세계 상품교역은 양적으로 3배 이상 증가하였으며, 개도국의 상품시장 점유율도 WTO가 출범한 1995년 28%에서 2017년 43%로 증가하였다.
   회원국 수의 확대는 WTO 체제의 또 다른 성과이다. 회원국 수의 증가로 인해 WTO 내 의사결정의 어려움과 복잡함이 가중되는 부작용이 있었으나 다른 한편 개도국을 성공적으로 세계경제에 편입시켜 단일의 WTO ... 더보기

   The World Trade Organization (WTO), launched in 1995 as a successor of the GATT system, has ambitiously begun its first multilateral trade negotiation round, Doha Development Agenda (DDA) in 2001. Since then, notwithstanding with its great ambition, the DDA has failed to draw visible results for more than 17 years, and hence confidence in the WTO-centered multilateral trading system has been declining accordingly. Nevertheless, there are some of the accomplishments of the WTO. The liberalization of the commodity markets has expanded and deepened through the conclusions of plurilateral negotiations under the WTO such as the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) and the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), and rules in service and intellectual property rights have been set-out and established. As a result of these achievements, the volume of global commodity trade has increased by more than three times, and the market share of developing countries has also increased from 28% in 1995 to 43% in 2017. The expansion of the number of member states is another achievement of the WTO. Although such expansion may have increased the difficulties and complexity of decision making in the WTO, it is clear that the expansion of new business opportunities by successfully incorporating developing countries into the global economy and applying unified WTO rules and standards is an achievement of the WTO. Along with the strengthening of the dispute settlement system, the Agreement on Trade Facilitation (TFA) and its implementation are the greatest achievements of the WTO system. The Trade Facilitation Agreement is the first multilateral trade agreement concluded after the establishment of the WTO and the launch of the DDA negotiations, while the Information Technology Agreement and the Government Procurement Agreement are plurilateral agreements. Economically, it is expected of the increase in exports by more than $ 1 trillion, the creation of 20 million export-related jobs, and the increase in the world's GDP by about $ 960 billion due to the reduction of trade costs and the improvement of trade environment.
   The limitations and problems of the WTO system are as clear as these achievements. In particular, governance issues that have long been pointed out are such typical examples. Decisions in the WTO system are in fact made by consensus, and enlarging the number of Member States has become a decisive factor in hindering efficient decision-making in the WTO. Although The ‘Single Undertaking’ principle of concluding the agreement contributed to maintaining the consistency and stability of the multilateral trade system, it caused the problem of the rigidity of the WTO system at the same time. The dispute settlement procedure is also increasingly problematic. Recently, the dispute settlement implementation process is increasingly followed by the retaliation process. In such processes, the situation in which the complainant must observe the implementation failure of the defendant until the retaliation is approved is undermining the fairness of the WTO system. Not only that, the lack of safeguard measures in service trade and the limitations and problems of special and differential treatment for developing countries have been pointed out as major challenges related to the current WTO system. In addition to the challenges of the WTO system itself, the fact that the WTO does not adequately respond to the rapidly changing global trade environment is also a major problem of the current WTO system. The reason why the FTAs around the world in the 2000’s have rapidly expanded is the WTO multilateral system has failed to respond effectively to the new trading environment. Since the early 2000s, the Global Production Networks have rapidly spread out and the 'made in world' has become common due to such international division of production, and hence the set-out of new trading rules and further tariff concessions in accordance with such development has long been awaited. However, the progress of DDA has fallen far short of expectation due to the confrontation between developed and developing countries. As the global economic slowdown has been prolonged since the global financial crisis in 2008, countries around the world have strengthened their protectionist policies for their industries and jobs. Notwithstanding, the WTO failed to issue a proper prescription for them. WTO members have constantly bashed protectionism and stated the importance of strengthening multilateral trade system whenever there is opportunity, but this is only an empty declaration; non-tariff measures have steadily increased since the financial crisis and have not returned to pre-2008 levels.
   Furthermore, the trade liberalization that has been pursued so far has mainly focused on trade barriers, especially tariff concession. However, in terms of market access, behind-the-border or non-tariff measures and regulations such as customs procedures and domestic regulations has persistently remained. In this situation, the abolition of tariff barriers has rather created a favorable environment for large companies. Large companies have more human and physical capital than small and medium enterprises to deal with customs procedures and domestic regulations. As a result, SMEs have failed to enter the foreign markets due to complex customs procedures and regulations behind the border, while large companies have succeeded in entering those markets. Such imbalance results in the concentration of benefits from trade liberalization into large corporations. The same stark reality applies between capital and labor; since the share of labor income after trade liberalization is gradually decreasing, the issue of unequal distribution of benefits from trade liberalization between labor and capital has been pointed out in multilateral trade negotiations. Therefore, inclusiveness and sustainability of international trade have become main topics. The need for discussions about reform of the WTO system are invigorated among developed and developing economies alike.
   Nevertheless, the current WTO reform discussion is to be characterized as the multilateralization of the U.S-China bilateral trade conflict. According to the proposals submitted by developed countries regarding WTO reform, transparency and notification enhancements are on the table. A set of regulations is to be strengthened in order for the WTO member states to comply with the notification duty. In spite of how the reform of the WTO Appellate Body will be done is controversial, that reform will move in the direction of mitigating the complaints of the United States. In that regard, a certain extent of differentiation among developing states will be inevitable. It is obvious that such a discussion will face strong opposition from developing countries. However, as the economic heterogeneity across developing countries is widening up, it is difficult for developing economies to ignore the disparity in their levels of development and to assert the same obligation among all developing countries. In addition, plurilateral negotiations will also be actively pursued in parallel with the existing DDA. Since some issues that developing countries argue to keep on the DDA negotiation table will be there as they are now, the 'flexible multilateralism' referred to by the EU will also be at the center of the debate. Considering the current conflicts between developed and developing economies, it cannot be ruled out the possibility that the multilateral system could be divided into alliance among developed economies and a group of developing countries if the WTO reform initiative led by developed countries such as the United States is not reaching to their desired level due to the opposition of developing economies. In this case, the current WTO regime may demise indeed.
   Therefore, Korea needs to be strategically prepared for the reform of the WTO system. With regard to transparency enhancement and notification enhancement, obtaining information on industrial subsidies across member states is intended and according to them more stringent classification and international review of subsidies is expected to be set-out. Therefore, Korea should review whether the current supplementary policies are strictly in accordance with the WTO regulations and minimize the possibilities of countervailing duties from other WTO members in advance. Maintaining the status of developing countries has been the principal premise of the DDA agriculture negotiations of Korea. However, given that recent development of the discussion with regard to the differentiation of developing countries, keeping Korea as a developing country will not be an option any longer. Since the obligations between developing and developed countries is considerably different in the agricultural sector, the implementation of Korea's obligations as a developed country will not show a favorable impact on the agricultural sector for a while. Therefore, there is a need for thorough preparation of the agricultural sector for such changes. Since the discussions on reform of the WTO system will go through every detailed issues, it is necessary for Korea to actively participate in the discussions on the agenda of our interests, especially transparency and notification and differentiation of developing countries, and reflect our interests in those discussions as much as possible.
   Moreover, the direction of Korea's multilateral trade policy, taking into consideration of the WTO system reform and the changes in the global trade environment, should include strengthening the status of Korea in the WTO, promoting inclusive trade within the WTO system, multilateralization of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and embracing the sustainability issues in the multilateral trade agenda. In order to strengthen Kor... 더보기

서언


국문요약


제1장 서론
1. 연구의 배경과 필요성
2. 연구의 목적 및 구성
3. 기존 연구와의 차별성


제2장 WTO 체제의 성과와 한계
1. WTO 체제의 성과
    가. 무역자유화의 진전
    나. 지식재산권 보호체계의 강화
    다. 분쟁해결제도의 정착
    라. 무역원활화협정 합의
2. WTO 체제의 한계와 문제점
    가. 제도적인 한계
    나. 통상환경 변화에 대한 WTO의 대응 미흡


제3장 WTO 체제 개혁에 대한 국제 논의와 정책 시사점
1. 미국의 WTO 체제 개혁에 대한 주장
    가. 투명성 제고 및 통보 강화
    나. WTO 분쟁해결제도 개선
    다. 신 무역 이슈
    라. 기존 DDA 이슈
2. EU의 WTO 체제 개혁에 대한 제안
    가. 투명성 제고 및 통보 강화
    나. 분쟁해결제도 개선
    다. 신 무역 이슈
    라. 기존 DDA 이슈
3. 캐나다의 WTO 체제 개혁에 대한 제안
    가. 통보 및 투명성 제고
    나. 분쟁해결제도의 개선
    다. 신 무역 이슈
    라. 기존 DDA 이슈
4. 향후 전망과 정책 시사점
    가. 향후 협상 전망
    나. 정책 시사점


제4장 우리나라 다자통상정책의 신 방향
1. WTO 체제 개혁의 근본 방향
    가. 의사결정방식의 개선: 참여 국가 수 확대 및 투명성 제고
    나. 일괄타결방식의 개혁: 신축적 다자주의
    다. 분쟁해결 이행체계의 개선: 보복조치의 다자간 확대
2. WTO 협상 대책
    가. 투명성 제고 및 통보 강화
    나. WTO 분쟁해결제도의 개혁
    다. 개도국 세분화 논의
    라. 복수국간협상방식의 활성화
3. 다자통상정책의 신 방향
    가. WTO 체제 내 위상 강화
    나. 포용적 무역의 선도
    다. 양자·지역무역협정의 다자화
    라. 지속 가능한 다자통상정책


제5장 정책 제언
1. WTO 체제 개혁 논의에 대한 우리나라의 입장
2. 우리나라 다자통상정책의 신 방향


참고문헌


부록. WTO 체제 개혁 제안에 대한 주요국 반응


Executive Summary 

판매정보
분량/크기 230 판매가격 10000 원
EMERiCs CSF EAER KEI한미경제연구소 통합무역정보서비스 국가정책연구포털 대한민국정부 청탁금지법 통합검색 청렴신문고 개인정보보호위원회

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