루마니아를 비롯한 EU 내 중동부유럽 국가들은 EU 회원국 가운데 현재 성장동력이 가장 기대되며, 우리나라도 최근 EU 내에서 이들과 무역․투자를 비롯한 경제협력을 가장 활발하게 전개하고 있다. 2011년 7월 한·EU FTA 발효 이후 EU 전반의 경기침체 여파로 우리의 대EU 수출실적은 부진을 면치 못했으나, 중동부유럽 국가에 대한 수출실적은 안정적으로 유지되었고, 이들은 또한 우리의 대표적인 무역수지 흑자 대상국이다. 2004년 EU 가입 중동부유럽 국가들은 급속한 경제성장, 소득증가, 교역확대 및 FDI 유치 급증 등으로 2008년 글로벌 금융위기 전까지 EU 내에서 가장 역동적인 성장동력의 역할을 수행하였다. 2007년 EU 가입과 2008년 글로벌 금융위기로 전술한 선도 가입국에 비해 상대적으로 경제성장세를 시현할 기회가 적었던 루마니아는 향후 EU 경제에서 역동적인 성장동력의 역할을 이어받을 가능성이 매우 높다. 세계 최대 구매력을 가지고 있는 EU 시...
The Central & Eastern European (CEE) countries, including Romania, have the highest growth potentials in the EU. Reflecting this situation, Korea has been expanding its efforts on economic cooperation issues, such as trade and investment, with these countries. After the Korea-EU FTA came into effect in July 2011, Korea’s exports to EU have been underperforming due to economic recession throughout the EU. However, Korea’s trade with the CEE countries has remained stable and Korea has continued to maintain a trade surplus with these countries. Most of the CEE countries, who joined the EU in 2004, served as a dynamic growth engine for the EU, showing rapid economic growth, increase in income, expansion in trade and FDI growth, until the global financial crisis in 2008. Romania, who joined the EU in 2007 and experienced the global financial crisis together, did not hitherto have a proper opportunity to realize its economic growth. Therefore, possibilities are high for Romania to serve as the growth engine of the EU in the near future. As the EU market has the world’s greatest purchasing power, Korean companies and the government are looking forward to expanding economic cooperation with the CEE countries to gain further access into the EU market. Yet, information on Romania remains relatively scarce compared to other countries.
This study has selected two Romanian industries with high growth potentials to strengthen Korea-Romania industrial cooperation and to suggest effective entry into the Romanian market, with the aim of enhancing Korea-CEE economic cooperation to overcome contracted market access in the EU following the European sovereign debt crisis. This study has analyzed the potentials of the Romanian economy as a growth engine of the EU, and the possibilities of industrial cooperation with Korea. More specifically, we have selected the information communication & technology (ICT) sector and infrastructure sector as our main industries in focus to analyze the risk factors, potentials, cooperation possibilities of each sector, through which we will seek strategic means to invigorate market entry.
This study has collected a variety of related statistical data and references both from Romanian and international sources. And in order to analyse the competitiveness of the industrial sector, we have looked into the statistical trade analysis of manufacturing industry. Along with qualitative and quantitative analyses, we have interviewed Romanian and Korean experts to ensure a high level of objectivity.
Among the CEE countries, Romania has the second largest population after Poland. Coming into the 2000s, Romania showed strong economic growth based on the inflow of FDI and growth in exports the nation saw after its accession to the EU. Romania has one of the highest economic growth potentials among EU member states, and is generating the most favorable economic results in recent days. Romania has maintained a relatively low level of commodity price, stable level of wage increase, decrease in value-added tax, and rise of purchasing power for individuals, thus leading to private consumption-led growth. In 2017, Romania is expected to achieve a 5.8% GDP growth rate, which is the highest among EU members. This trend of economic boosting is linked with improvement in investment sentiments from the 2nd quarter of 2017, and extended to develop production capacity and infrastructure, improvement in production levels, and so on, to increase expectations for the Romanian economy to converge to the average level of the EU.
ICT is an industry sector that both the Romanian government and EU are keen to develop. The Digital Agenda of Europe was suggested in line with EU’s growth strategy “Europe 2020” to establish a European digital single market by 2020. In order to reach this target, it will be necessary to narrow the gap of digital technology within the EU region. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the Romanian ICT sector, and indeed the Romanian government is intent to do so. Despite the fact that internet and mobile coverage are relatively high, Romanian ICT infrastructure has shown the lowest level of development compared to other EU member states. Romania is ranked the 58th in the world according to the ITU’s 2017 ICT development index, indicating that Romanian ICT infrastructure remains insufficient. However, in terms of ICT services, Romania is highly competitive compared to any other EU member state, especially thanks to the relatively low wage level of its skilled IT labor force. Therefore, numerous global IT companies are operating in Romania in the form of outsourcing, near-shoring, etc.
Romania is the largest recipient of EU funds for regional development. Most of these funds allocated for Romania are planned for infrastructure development. In February 2015, the Romanian government announced a revised version of its transportation master plan to develop roads, railways, air transport, naval and intermodal transport by 2030. Based on this vision, CNAIR and other related institutions are carrying on numerous projects utilising EU funds. According to BMI, the value of road and bridge infrastructure in Romania is expected to grow beyond 15 billion Romanian lei.
When assessing the external and internal aspects of entering into the Romanian market, the core competence of Korean companies was slightly lower than the average of their competitors in Romania but they showed an average level of coping with opportunity or threat factors. Regarding this assessment using SWOT analysis, here we will suggest strategies for Korean companies when entering into the Romanian market.
As a Strength-Opportunity combined strategy (S-O strategy), we suggest considering the establishment of an EU production base in Romania, an EU member state with high growth potential. To achieve this, the companies can make use of their competitiveness in high technology, such as in the IT sector, and comparative advantage in steel, automobile, electrical electronics, machinery, etc. It would be a realistic approach to establish a production base in the ICT sector in Romania, which is a fast-growing sector that hosts a number of foreign companies. This strategy is to utilize the opportunity factors available, such as the favorable market access allowed by the relatively open and well-developed infrastructure of the EU. It is in line with Korean companies’ establishing electronic and automobile parts producing factories in the North-western region of Romania near the Hungarian border.
EU’s government procurement market, which is the largest in the world, is focusing on the infrastructure development projects as part of regional development policy in the new member states including Romania. Therefore, recently Romanian public procurement has been continuously expanding. Among the €454 billion mid-term budget of the 2014-2020 EU fund, €30.84 billion will be allocated to eight different countries and regional programmes. The total budget of the EU fund for Romanian job creation and expand employment, environmental protection, support on social engagement, and so on, is €36.47 billion, among which Romania should independently fund €5.63 billion. As a second S-O strategy to exploit the opportunities of market growth potential and favorable market access in the EU’s emerging market Romania, it would be promising to promote participation in the Romanian government procurement market.
The third S-O strategy is to consider establishing a base in Romania to enter the emerging Eastern European market while minimizing threat factors. Macroeconomic performance, such as GDP growth, commodity price, exchange rate, etc., in Romania is stable and the nation has rich growth potentials as such a dynamic emerging market. If Korean companies establish an entry access point at the emerging Eastern European market in Romania, with their competitiveness and willingness to develop a market, the companies may expect increase in export to the nearby Balkan countries, Russia and other promising CIS countries.
We can suggest the following three strategies as Weakness- Opportunity strategies (W-O factor combination strategies). The first is to overcome the actual and psychological gap in the European market and focusing the European business base in Romania to establish an EU market entry base aiming for the world’s largest purchasing power. Considering the personnel expenses and geographical conditions, the gap can be overcome somewhat though establishing the general base in Romania, where excellent language skills and abundant IT manpower would allow the organic integration of each country.
The second is to participate in the Romanian government procurement market by collaborating with local companies. This would enable the Korean companies to overcome their weakness factor of having insufficient information on Romania, discrepancies in company culture, and lack of understanding and exchange in European culture. While the necessary legislation regarding public- private partnerships is yet to be ratified by the Parliament, the Romanian government expects to pass this in 2018 to invigorate public projects struggling with financial supply problems. Here the Korean companies, including SMEs with proper technologies, can collaborate with the local companies to participate in EU-funded government procurement projects. It is a prerequisite to establish a cooperative relationship with major Romanian companies.
The third is to enhance understanding of Romanian culture through cultural exchange. This would be a mid- to long-term strategy to overcome the typical weaknesses of the Korean companies when entering the Romanian market. Normally, since cultural exchange should be carried out continuously as a long-term project the Korean government sh...
제2장 루마니아 경제동향 및 산업구조
가. 최근 경제현황 및 특징
나. 향후 전망
2. 산업구조 및 산업정책
나. 주요 산업정책
제3장 ICT 산업
2. 산업 정책
가. 루마니아 디지털 어젠다 2020
나. 차세대 네트워크 인프라 개발계획과 RoNET
3. 산업구조 및 세부 산업 현황
가. 인터넷 및 통신
다. 소프트웨어 및 IT 서비스
4. 산업 성장잠재력 및 전망
제4장 인프라 산업: 수송 인프라
가. 인프라 경쟁력
나. 승객 운송
다. 화물 운송
가. 일반 수송 마스터플랜
나. 범유럽 수송네트워크
3. 산업구조 및 세부산업 현황
다. 항만 및 수로
라. 공항 및 복합 설비
4. 산업 성장잠재력 및 전망
제5장 대루마니아 산업협력 방향 및 진출전략
1. 한·루마니아 무역·투자 현황
2. 루마니아 시장 진출환경 평가
가. 외부환경 분석
나. 내부환경 분석
3. 루마니아 시장 중장기 진출전략
가. S-O 전략
나. W-O 전략
다. S-T 전략
라. W-T 전략
부록 1. 설문지: 루마니아 시장진출환경 주요 요인 평가
부록 2. ｢루마니아 시장진출 비즈니스 환경｣ AHP 평가를 위한 설문
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