한·러 일반여권 비자면제는 양국 정부 및 민간 차원에서 비공식적인 검토를 거치며 그 필요성이 꾸준히 제기되어 왔으며, 2010년 3월 제9차 한‧러 영사국장회의를 통해 공식적으로 논의되기 시작하였다. 특히 2012년 9월 APEC 정상회의에서 양국 정상이 비자면제협정 체결을 위한 협상을 시작하기로 합의하면서 추진력을 얻게 되었으며, 2013년 5월 제12차 영사국장회의에서 전반적인 협정 내용에 합의한 후, 2013년 10월 현재 적절한 계기의 서명을 위한 국내절차를 추진하는 중이다.
The Economic Impact and Application Plan of the Visa-Free Regime between Korea and Russia
Yeo-Cheon Jeong, Soonchan Park, and Boo Gyun Kang
Korea and Russia, for years, have had informal discussions in both government and private sectors on the need for an introduction of visa-free regime between two countries. And at the 9th bilateral consular affairs talks held in March 2010, two countries finally started an official dialogue to establish mutual visa-free travel. In particular, during the 2012 APEC summit, leaders from both countries agreed to open negotiations for mutual visa-waiver agreement (VWA), and then at the 12th bilateral consular affairs talks held in May 2013, the both sides reached agreement on general contents of the agreement.
The political-economic judgement takes a main role in promoting Korea-Russia visa-waiver agreement. Since the establishment of diplomatic ties in 1990, Korea-Russia relationship has been steadily moving forward. At the 2008 summit, the two leaders agreed to upgrade bilateral ties from the status of a comprehensive partnership to that of a strategic cooperative partnership. And in 2012, Korea's trade volume with Russia amounted to 22.5 billion dollars, an increase of 117 times over 20 years. The number of mutual personal exchange between both countries also increased up to 280 thousand people in 2012.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the background and economic impact of the Korea-Russia VWA, and come up with propositions for its efficient application plan. The study is consisted of five chapters. The first chapter introduces background and purpose of the study and previous research. Then, an overview on the background and contents of the agreement is presented in the second part. In the third chapter, the status and charateristics of visa-waiver agreements that are already in existence discussed.
In the fourth chapter, the economic impacts of the Korea-Russia VWA are analyzed. In particular, this study evaluates the economic benefit that the VWA brings to the Korea, including increased tourist-business trips and reduced expenditure on visa issuance. In order to capture the net effect of the VWA – the increased tourism and business trips due to VWA – the author uses the difference-in- differences method as well as random effect and fixed effect model based on statistics of inbound and outbound visitor trends for 64 countries, which with Korea made a VWA. Also the author calculates the trade stimulating effect between Korea and Russia using gravity model and conducts input-output analysis for Korean tourism. However, the results of this study show minimum riffle effect of Korea-Russia VWA, as it is based on average indicators of VWA already achieved between Korea and 64 individual countries.
The chapter five summarizes previous parts and presents challenges and measures to enhance cooperation between Korea and Russia, by VWA as a momentum. The visa-waiver agreement can be either an opportunity or an instrument for boosting economic cooperation, but it is hard to be an immediate factor. Therefore, comprehensive policy tools needs to be prepared to maximize its effect.
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