|Title||A Diagnosis of Bubble Risk in the Global Real Estate Sector and Prospective Impacts on Financial Crises|
|Author||JEONG Young Sik, KIM Kyunghun, KIM Hyosang, YANG Dayoung, and KANG Eunjung|
|Series||Policy Analyses 18-01|
Real estate prices, which plummeted shortly after the global financial crisis in 2008, have risen sharply to exceed pre-crisis levels, raising concerns about global real estate bubbles. In response, this study diagnoses the bubble risk in the global real estate market and analyzes the impact of real estate bubbles on financial crises and the real economy. In addition, we examine previous bubble-oriented financial crises in the real estate sector and compare them against recent global situations.
This study first examines whether a real estate bubble exists in major global economies, based on two criteria. The first is general indicators such as price to rent ratio (PRR), price to income ratio (PIR), and household credit growth rates, and the other is cointegration tests between real estate prices and fundamentals, and time series analyses like the generalized sup ADF (GSADF) method used by Phillips, Wu, and Yu (2011), and Phillips, Shi, and Yu (2015).
The results of the empirical analysis indicate that among the countries where housing prices rose by more than 6.6% in 2016, or those in which housing prices continuously rose by more than 3.6% in the three years from 2014 to 2016, countries with high probability of bubbles forming in their real estate markets are China, Colombia, Hungary, Latvia, Turkey and Slovakia.
Among developed countries, Australia, Austria, Canada, Ireland, Israel, Luxembourg, New Zealand and Sweden have the highest increase rate in housing prices. Among these, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Israel and Sweden are all at high risk according to the above three indicators. These five countries, for which all three indicators indicate risk, also show the same high bubble risk in our empirical analysis.
In Korea, the housing price index, PRR and PIR have stabilized considerably since the 2000s, and the risk of bubbles forming is also low according to the empirical analysis. However, in 2016 the household-credit-to-GDP ratio in Korea increased by 4.7%p from 2015, showing a remarkable increase similar to China (5.6%p) and Norway (6.2%p). In terms of PIR, Seoul is lower than Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai, Sydney and Vancouver, but higher than Los Angeles, London, New York, Tokyo and Singapore. In other words, the risk of real estate bubbles is not high at the national level, but the PIR in some areas such as Seoul is high.
Next, this study uses country panel data to analyze the relationship between the real estate bubble and financial crises. A panel logit with fixed effect model is used to perform the analysis. And the impact of the real estate bubble on GDP growth rate is analyzed using a fixed effect panel model.
The first empirical result shows that the house price bubble (HPB) is highly related to financial crises, as defined by the Jordà- Schularick-Taylor Macrohistory Database. Both HPB and HPB indicators, and the cross term between the two variables, are statistically significant as positive coefficients. At the HPB level, which is about one to two standard deviations above the HPB average, an increase in one unit HPB increases the likelihood of a financial crisis from 3.6% to 4.0%. In Korea, the possibility of a financial crisis is not high because HPB is not far from the long-term trend as of 2016.
Second, our analysis of the relationship between HPB and various types of financial crises, as classified by Reinhart & Rogoff, shows that HPB is more closely related to banking crises and stock market crashes than to currency crashes, sovereign defaults, and inflation crises.
Third, in the fixed effect panel analysis of the relationship between HPB and GDP growth rate, the increase in HPB shows a negative effect on GDP growth rate.
In order to assess the risks of the global real estate market and to obtain policy implications for real estate risk management in Korea, this study also examines the cases of real estate bubble-oriented financial crises such as seen by Sweden, Finland and Japan in the early 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008. In addition, the risks associated with prospective bubbles in the recent Chinese real estate market have been frequently cited, so we compare the recent Chinese situation with Japan in the mid-1980s and the U.S. real estate bubble in the mid-2000s.
The results of the case analysis indicate a definite risk of a global real estate bubble, albeit to a lesser extent than seen in the past. This is because the monetary easing policies of major advanced economies are far more aggressive than the past. In recent years, however, the strengthening of financial institutions' soundness regulations and risk management, and the implementation of measures to manage capital flows have played a stronger role in mitigating the bubble risk compared to past times.
By region, the real estate bubble pressure seems to be larger in emerging economies than in advanced economies. This is because emerging economies are climbing more steeply than developed countries. In advanced economies, real estate prices have fallen sharply and debt deleveraging has proceeded since the global financial crisis. However, in emerging economies, asset prices have risen and household debt has increased steadily.
In particular, in the case of China, the possibility of a financial crisis due to a plunge in real estate prices is low in the short term. However, Chinese real estate prices are likely to decline modestly, which can slow China's economic growth, and small and medium- sized cities with an over-supply of housing are likely to face a financial crisis.
Finally, this study provides some policy implications for the management of external risks from overseas real estate bubbles and stabilization of the Korean real estate market. In order to improve external risk management, it will be necessary to strengthen monitoring of external environments and global real estate markets, and to prepare countermeasures against financial crisis in economies with high risk in their real estate sectors. It will also be necessary to strengthen international cooperation so that major advanced countries can implement monetary policy normalization measures in an orderly manner.
In order to stabilize Korea's real estate market, it will be necessary to systematically check the bubble risk within the domestic real estate market, and monetary authorities need to consider asset prices in addition to inflation when determining monetary policy. Next, while referring to cases of policies implemented in times of soaring real estate prices, it will be necessary to implement comprehensive measures to suppress demand, expand supply, and manage risk.