“Make in India”, the well-known national manufacturing policy of India, has raised attention around the world as it presents its vision of developing India into a global manufacturing hub. First and foremost, it will be significant for Korea to establish additional strategies toward the Indian market in order to diversify its exports. Furthermore, India is growing in its importance for Korea when considering its increasing need to re-adjust from dependence on the G2 economies, amidst rapidly changing circumstances surrounding the Korean Peninsula. Therefore, this research explores the structure and characteristics of each sector of the Indian manufacturing industry. In particular, this study analyzes the manufacturing industry in India, categorized into 24 sections and 137 divisions, by using firm-level data. First, prior to the analysis, this research investigated the current status, system, and policy of the overall manufacturing industry in India. Particularly, we focused on pinpointing the status of India’s manufacturing industry within the global economy through comparison with other major emerging economies. Our study also examines related policies at the sectoral- and state-level. In addition, this research conducted a thorough review of the literature available on the Indian manufacturing industry.
For the sectoral analysis, this research examined the areas of market power, performance, research & development (R&D), globalization, and productivity and estimated industrial concentration, HHI (Herfindahl- Hirschman Index), Lerner index, sales, total assets, operating margin, R&D expenses, exports, imports, and labor productivity. Next, our research performed a regression analysis using a probabilistic frontier model to estimate the total factor productivity (TFP) of Indian manufacturing industries, with the determinants analyzed through comparative analysis of industrial sectors and firm characteristics. Moreover, this research conducted a comparative analysis on the characteristics of Indian domestic companies, foreign companies (excluding Korean companies), and Korean companies in the Indian manufacturing sector.
Based on the research results, our study first and foremost strove to provide qualified guidelines for Korean companies to select potential industries for entry into the Indian market. Finally, this paper aims to provide valuable insights in different manufacturing sectors to determine whether the Indian economy is better suited as a production center, or as an export market.